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Citation Guide: Chicago 17th Edition Citation

Summaries of APA, MLA, and University of Chicago style guides for in-text and bibliographic citations.

Changes in the 17th Edition

  • The biggest change is the removal of the term "Ibid." in the footnotes.  If you repeat a note source, simply use the author's last name and a shortened version of the title with the appropriate page numbers, regardless of where it appears.
  • Web addresses, permalinks, and DOIs are now included in the footnotes.  Database names are no longer included.
  • Notes at the bottom of the page should be preceded by a full size number, but a superscript is acceptable since most word processing programs still automatically insert the superscript.
  • If the website is part of a print publication (like a newspaper's website), the title is in italics. If not, it should be in the regular font style.

Talk to a Librarian

Use the above chat widget, visit the Reference Desk at HSL, call us at 610-902-8537, or email library@cabrini.edu if you have any questions about citation.  Librarians are ready to help you.

Chcago Style, Author-Date Format

Author-Date (AD) citation style does not use footnotes.  Instead, the quote or paraphrase is marked by an in-text citation using the author’s last name and the year of publication.  This is a shorthand way to send the reader to the references list at the end of the article for full information on the origin of the idea. 

“I wasn’t looking for this, but now you’re in my way.” (Jepsen and Crowe 2012)

The singer seems to be daring his audience to try to “bring [him] down” (Williams 2013).

 

The references list puts the date in a different order for easier recognition in this system.  Here is a book example:

Chernow, Ron. 2004. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin Press.

This is an example of a journal article from an online database:

Heuman, Josh.  2011. "'I Don't Want to Pay for What I Don't Watch': The Cultural Politics of à la Carte Cable Television and the Cultural Life of Communication Policy." Communication, Culture & Critique 4 (1): 31-55. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-9137.2010.01091.x.

See the citation guides to the right for more explanation and examples.

Chicago Style, Notes and Bibliography Format: Some Examples

The following are some basic examples of citation using the Notes-and-Bibliography (NB) format.  The first footnote of an item is more extensive and the subsequent footnotes of that item can be abbreviated.  For more info consult the style guides to the right.

Footnote, excerpt from book:

1. Ron Chernow. Alexander Hamilton (New York: Penguin Press, 2004), 186.

2. Chernow, Alexander Hamilton, 326-27.

Bibliography entry, book:

Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.

 

Footnote, excerpt from book chapter:

3. Howard S. Becker, “The Professional Dance Musician and His Audience”, in Keeping Time: Readings in Jazz History, 2nd ed., ed. Robert Walser, (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014), 168.

6. Becker, “The Professional Dance Musician,”, 171.

Bibliography entry, book chapter:

Becker, Howard S. “The Professional Dance Musician and His Audience.” In Keeping Time: Readings in Jazz History, 2nd ed., edited by Robert Walser, 164-75.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.

 

Footnote, excerpt from journal article:

7. Josh Heuman, "'I Don't Want to Pay for What I Don't Watch': The Cultural Politics of à la Carte Cable Television and the Cultural Life of Communication Policy," Communication, Culture & Critique 4, no. 1 (Mar. 2011): 46, doi: 10.1111/j.1753-9137.2010.01091.x.

8. Heuman, “’I Don’t Want to Pay,’” 49.

Bibliography entry, journal article (from online database OR open access):

Heuman, Josh.  "'I Don't Want to Pay for What I Don't Watch': The Cultural Politics of à la Carte Cable Television and the Cultural Life of Communication Policy." Communication, Culture & Critique 4, no. 1 (Mar. 2011): 31-55. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-9137.2010.01091.x.

 

Footnote, excerpt from magazine article:

9. Gabrielle Coppola, and Shoshanna Solomon, "Persuading Israel’s Tech Firms to IPO at Home." Bloomberg Businessweek Nov. 17, 2014, 40, http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx? direct=true& db=mth&AN=99418874&site=ehost-live.

10. Coppola and Solomon, “Persuading Israel’s Tech Firms”, 41.

Bibliography entry, magazine article from online database (using permalink):

Coppola, Gabrielle, and Shoshanna Solomon, "Persuading Israel’s Tech Firms to IPO at Home." Bloomberg Businessweek no. 4403 (Nov. 17, 2014): 40-41. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx? direct=true& db=mth&AN=99418874&site=ehost-live.

 

Footnote, excerpt from webpage (note if it is a blog):

11. Elizabeth Rittiman, “Make Yourself Indispensable – 5 Workplace Communication Strategies.” The Global Broadcast (blog), Feb. 12, 2015,  https://csuglobal.edu/blog/make-indispensable-5-workplace-communication-strategies.

12. Rittiman, “Make Yourself Indispensable.”

Bibliography entry, webpage (note if it is a blog):

Rittiman, Elizabeth. “Make Yourself Indispensable – 5 Workplace Communication Strategies.” The Global Broadcast (blog). Feb. 12, 2015,  https://csuglobal.edu/blog/make-indispensable-5-workplace-communication-strategies.

 

Footnote, excerpt from webpage, no author:

13. “Selective Mutism,” American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, last modified 2017, http://www.asha.org/public/speech/disorders/SelectiveMutism/.

14. “Selective Mutism.”

Bibliography entry, webpage, no author:

“Selective Mutism.” American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.  Last modified 2017. http://www.asha.org/public/speech/disorders/SelectiveMutism/.

Citation Guides

Chicago Style Citation Quick Guide from the University of Chicago

Chicago Formatting and Style Guide from Purdue University's Online Writing Lab (OWL). Please note their sample papers and bibliographies still reflect the 16th edition, but the individual examples reflect the 17th.

Chicago Author-Date Citation Guide from Fairfield University

Anatomy of Citations: Chicago from Marquette University

Formatting Footnotes

The Chicago Manual of Style recommends using a word processor's on-board footnote generator when preparing a manuscript.  In MS Word:

  1. Position the cursor after the quote or paraphrase you would like to cite.
  2. Click the References tab.
  3. In the Footnotes group, click Insert Footnotes.
  4. The cursor will automatically drop down to the bottom of the page and the correctly sequenced footnote.  Any other footnotes after this point that have already been added will be automatically renumbered accordingly.
  5. Type in the citation in correct footnote format.